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This page is an introduction to the “CMO Meetings in History”. The CMO was first published on 25 January 1986, and the first CMO Meeting of Planetary Observers was held in September 1987. The following are synopses of the CMO Meeting series ever since.
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1st CMO Meeting of the Japanese Planetary Observers was held on the
evening of the 23 September 1987 at the
eclipse was successfully watched on the day: ASADA, MINAMI,
The Report was published in CMO #039 (15 October 1987).
CMO Meeting (1988,
2nd CMO Meeting of Planetary Observers was held on 15 March 1988 at Asakusa, Tokyo chez Motomaro
SHIRAO (the Tokuhon-ji
Temple) on the occasion Naoya MATSUMOTO (Mt) stopped over Tokyo before going to
an island of the Philippines on 18 March (to watch a total solar eclipse). The
Meeting was organised by Tomio AKUTSU (Ak), and joined by T
ISHIBASHI (Is), H HASEGAWA (Hs), T NAKAGAMI
They were all the members of AKUTSU’s seminar on the photographic study of the planets, and they discussed their means to be used in the 1988 Mars apparition (Mars was at opposition on 28 September 1988 and was closest to the Earth on 22 September). For example they discussed about the use of the films and the filters: Re the Blue filters, the B390 (350~450nm) and the Comet-A (400~500nm) were compared, the latter being more transparent. They also argued about the use of the Green filter.
The report of the Meeting was written by T AKUTSU and published in CMO #048 (25 March 1988) at p 0412.
CMO Meeting (1989,
Just seeing the great apparition of the 1988 Mars off, Takashi NAKAJIMA (Nj) organised at the beginning of January 1989 a small CMO Meeting of Planetary Observers at the Fukui City Museum of Natural History.
AKUTSU (Ak) took a night train to
We all talked in a small conference room first about Ak’s plan to edit and publish an album of TP photos of the 1988 Mars taken by the domestic contributors to the CMO. Then we watched Video images of the Viking Orbiters from “The Planetary Image Videodisc Volume 1” (NASA/JPL). Before evening ASADA excused to leave because he had another engagement.
day it was very fine, and the rooftop of the Museum commanded a nice view of
3 January, we started at 11:00 AM. We first went and showed Ak the cliffs at Tohjinbo, and then turned back to the
We were also at the Observatory, while it was cloudy the evening, and so after appreciating Ak’s and My’s slides, we all drove down to Mn’s home at Mikuni, and there we continued to discuss. Km’s drawings of the 1988 Mars and the excellent My’s photo and drawing filed were there. We talked more than 5 or 6 hours there and went to bed late at night.
last photo here was taken on 4 January at Mikuni. Left
to right; My, Km, Ak, As and Mn. On the early afternoon of
4 January, Ak
As, Mn and My, joined by Nj in
day was the last day, and As
came down from
This is based on the report appeared in CMO #067 (10 January 1989) p0516.
The next meeting was held in
1994, and so we did not have the CMO Meeting for about four years. This was
perhaps partly because the following apparitions became gradually aphelic, and partly because the substance of the CMO
communications has grown richer: Meanwhile the edition became performed by
means of personal computer. We instead set up several occasions of the CMO Mars Watching Days. Otherwise we held
workshops when anybody came up to the Fukui City Observatory. For example, Tohru IWASAKI (Iw) who has been one of the members from the outset
does not appear in the abov
1993 on 19 May, Mrs Elisabeth SIEGEL (ESg) from
ASADA (As) resigned from Editor in
1990 because he was to go over to the
4th CMO Meeting (1994,
August 1994, the OAA Annual General Convention was held at
6 August, NISHITA (Ns) and MINAMI (Mn) first welcomed Y HIGA (Hg) from Okinawa at the
7 August, Ns brought four of us (Id, Hg, Mk and Mk) in the morning to
The first photo here: from left to right, (behind) Nj, Hg, Mt, Ak, Mn, Iw, Nr, OSAWA, (front) Ns, Mo, Id, Is, ANDOH, Mk, Hk.
Main Convention of the OAA was held on 8 August at a Lecture Hall of the
Our final aim was however to catch the planet Mars in the morning sky. At 2:30 JST, the sky looked cloudy. However when Id, Hg and Mn took a rest at the roof top looking down the night view of the City, the sky became gradually cleared, and finally Mars was caught. The apparent diameter was still small of 5 arcsecs, but the seeing condition gave us a nice view of Mars: Id first set out to make a drawing by the 20cm refractor, and then Mn, Iw, Mk, Nr and Nj followed. Each captured thus the first light of Mars of the 1995 Apparition (Mars was at opposition on 12 February 1995 with the maximal diameter of 13.9”; very aphelic), and thus the CMO season of Mars began. As the dawn broke, the 4th CMO Meeting of Planetary Observers was closed.
The report was published in CMO #148 (25 August 1994).
The second overseas guest of
planetary observer to the CMO or to the
The first photo here: left to right; Nj, GQr, Mn and Mk. The second photo inside the dome: left to right; Mk, GQr, Mn, Nj and Ns. The report was recorded in CMO #179 (25 September 1996).
CMO Meeting (1996,
third overseas guest was Francis OGER (FOg), an SAF member as well as
a CNRS logical mathematician at Université de Paris
7. We received a FAX from him on 18 July and heard that he would arrive on 23
August and stay from 16 to 20 September at the
the next evening of 11 October, we all were invited by Mr Noboru TSUJIOKA (amateur astronomer in
day NISHITA (Ns) guided OGER to the
1° About the SAF and other groups
2° Recent rare phenomena on Saturn by M MURAKAMI
3° About the coming Mars in 1997 by A NISHITA
4° Dust clouds on the Martian northern hemisphere by M MINAMI.
talked until 2:00 AM (on 13 September JST). The sky was cloudy, but around from
4:00 AM it became fine. And so Mk,
The photo here: left to right, (front) Ns, FOg and Hk, (behind) Mk, Mn and Nj
His stay at Fukui and Mikuni was reported in CMO #180 (25 October 1996) in Japanese.
6th CMO Meeting (1998,
We had the 6th CMO Meeting on 3 January 1998 at the Fukui City Museum of Natural History, attended by (left to Right) T HIKI (Hk), M MINAMI (Mn), Y HIGA (Hg), Gianni QUARRA (GQr), T AKUTSU (Ak), T NAKAJIMA (Nj), MURAKAMI (Mk) and A NISHITA (Ns).
the afternoon of 1 January, HIGA (Hg)
arrived and made a personal session with Ns
on a ccd method. On 2 January, M MURAKAMI arrived. In
the evening, we went to TSUJIOKA’s Observatory, and then up to the
2. Yasunobu HIGA: CCD Imaging by XV1000
3. Masatsugu MINAMI:1996/97 OAA Observations
4. Akinori NISHITA: Coming 1998/99 Mars
5. Giovanni QUARRA: CCD by
6. Masami MURAKAMI: Internet in 1997
7. Toshiaki HIKI: Fresh Resolute in 1999
8. Tomio AKUTSU: Jupiter Imaging
9. Giovanni QUARRA: Practice by MiPS
After Ak’s interesting talk and discussion for about two hours, we went down to the station to see HIKI (Hk) who arrived at 13:35, and we took together our lunches in a Chinese restaurant. In the afternoon we continued the conference, and also into the night. GQr's talk and his images on the monitor most attracted the audience: His work has been well known among us because of beautiful images he and his colleagues took during the 1998/97 apparition by a combination of the telescope of 30cm f/24 Cassegrain and the camera ISIS CCD-800 14HS which contains Kodak-0400 sensor with 768 × 512 pixels as well as a chip of a 14-bit A/D converter which divides the digital signal into 214 = 16384 levels of brightness. Notable is that the camera is equipped with 8 bandpass filters out of which the blue one centred at 420nm was taken notice by all attendants. QUARRA showed us a lot of images of Planets as well as his colleagues at Pic and others. It seems to be easy to obtain the Mercator map of Jupiter by MiPS. The highlight of the show on the monitor was the image of the planet Saturn which rotated, and our eyes, as if seeing from the windows of a space-craft, could watch gradually the rear side of the planet while the scattered stars were moving and another planet came into sight. What wonderful workmanship! We all involuntarily clapped hands for the work: Gianni joined us in our ovation also by applauding in praise of Andrea LEO to whom he owed much.
The Meeting was thus intimate and pleasant as well as instructive. We continued our discussion nearly until midnight. We then moved to Mikuni, and talked until 3:00 AM over glasses of beer.
Click here for more details of the Meeting. This was recorded in CMO #199 (25
7th CMO Meeting (1999,
Mk-126D 12:20 GMT ω=251°W 400×20cm Refractor
Mn-478D 12:30 GMT ω=254°W 370×25cm
Iw-059D 12:35 GMT ω=255°W 400×20cm Refractor
Id-060D 12:40 GMT ω=256°W 400×20cm Refractor
Nj-257D 13:20 GMT ω=266°W 400×20cm Refractor
Mk-127D 13:30 GMT ω=268°W 400×20cm Refractor
13:30 GMT ω=268°W 370×25cm
Mn-479D 13:40 GMT ω=271°W 370×25cm
Id-062D 14:50 GMT ω=288°W 400×20cm Refractor
15:00 GMT ω=290°W
On the afternoon of 3 May, the main Meeting was held at the Lecture Hall of the Museum. Ak showed several excellent colour images of update Mars. He also gave a talk on his CCD Camera Teleris 2, his recent work and his method of image processing. Hg also talked. Finally Mn gave a long special talk on his cherished opinion on the Mars observation and phenomena, and also reviewed and criticised the recent Martian observations made by the CMO members. We discussed every night about the Martian images, domestic and abroad, ever taken on the monitors manipulated by Ak and Hg.
See for more details the 1998/99 Mars CMO Note (6).
This is recorded in CMO #229 (25 March 2000) p2704.
8th CMO Meeting (2000,
8th CMO Meeting of Planetary Observers took place on 15, 16 and 17
September 2000 at a Conference Room of the Kanagawa Seishonen
Centre (KYC) in
Participants are as follows: T AKUTSU (Ak), Y HIGA (Hg), H HASEGAWA (Hs), T ISHIBASHI (Is), T IWASAKI (Iw), M MINAMI (Mn), Y MORITA (Mo), M NAKAJIMA (Nk), A NISHITA (Ns), F OGER (FOg), K OKANO (Ok) and H OYAMADA (Oy) in addition to Mk and Ts from the CMO, and S KAMIDO, H KURUMADA and S KOYAMA from the YAA.
the afternoon of 15 September, some members gathered at a café inside the KYC,
and we had a pre-meeting there: an MGS image released on 13 September was
talked about (showing a dust storm near the periphery of the north polar cap on
20 August 2000 (042°Ls)). In the evening we
dined at the
On 16 September, the main symposium was held as follows:
09:30 Opening Address ---------- Masami MURAKAMI
09:40 Talk 1: Planetary CCD - Practice & Problems ---------- Tomio AKUTSU
10:30 Talk 2: 2001 Apparition of Mars. I ---------- Noriaki NISHITA
11:00 Talk 3: 2001 Apparition of Mars. II ---------- Masatsugu MINAMI
13:00 Talk 4: Recall of the 1986 Apparition of Mars ----------Morimasa NAKAJIMA
14:00 Tea Break - HIGA's 1999 Mars Video
14:30 Talk 5: CCD Image Processing (on LRGB) ---------- Kunihiko OKANO
15:30 Talk 6: Digital Video and Digital Cameras ----------Yasunobu HIGA
16:20 Closing Address ---------- Masatsugu MINAMI
19:00 Informal Meeting at a Hotel Lounge (MORITA joined)
Tomio AKUTSU (Ak) has been engaged in CCD observations of the major planets since 1994 by the use of Lynxx and Teleris 2 cooled CCD cameras attached to a Newtonian having a 32cm f/6.5 speculum whose second mirror is only of 18% in size. Recently he began to use the software called "StellaImage ver 3" which allows a ready and automatic composing of a lot of raw images. First Ak briefly compared the CCD system with the old system by the emulsions. He counts it merited to use a smaller f number with a shorter exposure time, but usually available CCD chips are not always sensitive to the shorter wave lengths. In this sense, he felt that the blue light images by the TP2415 emulsion looked still superior to any B images composed by the CCD chips even if the recommended KAF0400E was used. In the case of Mars, any chip must be at least better than 400E since the B image plays a specific role in the Mars observation. Ak however admitted that CCD hitherto opened variously wider ways to the planetary observations: For example, in the case of Jupiter, as he has been successful, a specific filter allows to choose lights from the methane band whose images discriminate well the upper currents from the lower ones on the Jovian surface. Ak also touched on some troubles common to the cooled CCD cameras.
Morimasa NAKAJIMA (Nk) has been well known as a Mars observer since 1956 when he witnessed independently the occurrence of the great dust cloud at Noachis. He here talked how he observed Mars in 1986 since the 2001 apparition was similar to the 1986 one. Nk began his talk based on his article written in 1987 about his observations of the 1986 Mars. His method was impressive; before the arrival of each season he compiled the data of several phenomena observed in the preceding apparitions in order of Ls lest he should not miss the timing to observe them again. He really showed us the document used in 1986.
Kunihiko OKANO (Ok) is one of originators of the so-called LRGB composition, and on this occasion
he described to us how he got the idea (maybe in 1997), how one can make an LRGB
image, and what kind of problems remain to be solved. Instead of using the
decomposition into three primary RGB ingredients or into CYM colours, he picked
out another decomposition, that is, into a Lab colour.
Dr OKANO said that human eyes could not so sharply discern the boundaries of
colours, and hence a poor RGB image might be enough to get a more sharpened
image embodied with high S/N and high
resolution if another sharper high-resolved monochrome image could be got and
composed appropriately. Let us suppose we obtained one high-resolved monochrome
image (high-L image) at the same time with a usual poor RGB colour image. Then
first convert the RGB into the Lab
final day on 17 September, we also had an informal meeting at the KYC in the
summarised their talks (for the sake of Mo,
who could not attend the day time session on 16 Sept). Tohru
IWASAKI (Iw) talked then about how the colour of the Syrtis Mj
underneath a morning mist should be called as well as how the northern mouth of
Hesperia looked like in 1984 and 1999. T AKUTSU (Ak) used his favourite PC to show
us how he image processed the recent Jovian images by the use of the StellaImage ver 3. His HD
had a lot of planetary images including Don PARKER's Martian ones. Photo here, left to right: (standing) Ts, Mn, Mo, Iw and Mk; (front)
For more details and summaries of other talks, refer to the 2002 CMO Meeting Report.
The Report in the paper version of the CMO was published in CMO #235 (25 September 2000).
9th CMO Meeting (2001,
9th CMO Workshop (First Summer School) was organised by ISHADOH (Is), HIGA (Hg) and WAKUGAWA (Wk), and they kindly invited
us to Okinawa on 20, 21 and 22 July 2001 when the dust cloud on the planet Mars
looked attractive. MINAMI (Mn) was already staying there
from 8 July, and on 20 July NISHITA (Ns), HIKI (Hk)
and TSUNEMACHI (Ts) were welcomed at the Naha airport in the
morning and MORITA
(Mo) and MURAKAMI (Mk) arrived in the afternoon.
We had a welcoming party at a restaurant called Ijyu-no-hana
of Okinawa-cooking (without alcohol), and as the dusk gathered, we went to the Wakugawa Observatory at a suburb called Kotinda
of Naha. The Wakugawa Observatory is equipped with a
40 cm Newtonian and on the terrace they prepared several telescopes such as 35
cm Meade STC and 25 cm SCT. The sky around there was good, and everybody from
the main land felt that the planet shined quite higher. The area was dark
enough to see the Milky Way easily. Every visual observer, Hk, Mn, Mk or Ts, took 6 ~ 8 drawings
21 July, they kindly set an excursion to bring us to Mabuni in a more southern area of
the island which is now the quiet and beautiful land for the repose of the
souls lost in WWII. The sea and the sky were really blue, and coral reefs
shined white. In the afternoon, we moved to Shuri (near the
Chez ISHADOH, left to right (front) HIKI, ISHADOH, TSUNEMACHI, MORITA and MURAKAMI,
22 July, some talked in the B&B where Mn
stayed, some did shopping, and almost all flew out from
10th CMO Meeting (2002, Ina,
10th CMO Meeting (Second Summer School) was organised by Toshiaki HIKI (Hk) and held from the night of 2 August 2002 to
the morning of 5 August at
and MINAMI welcomed ISHADOH (Id) on the afternoon of 2
August at the Shiojiri Station, went to Miyada Village/Koma-ga-ne (near Iijima) by a
super-highway, and turned back to the Hotel we reserved at Ina via the road
which P LOWELL took, though in a reverse way from Ina to Iijima.
Late at night AKUTSU (Ak), MURAKAMI
(Mk) and NARITA (Nr) arrived safely at Ina by Ak’s car from the (eastern) central super-highway, and subsequently
(Iw), MORITA (Mo), NISHITA (Ns) and OSHIRO (Os) reached us via
3 August, we opened a Morning Meeting at the Hotel where Mn mainly talked. During the Meeting OGER (FOg) arrived (who stayed in
This occasion Ak, Mo and Ns personally had frequent conversations one another on ccd methods (especially about the problems of filters).
4 August, we went up from Tatsuno to Simo-no-Suwa, and visited the inn called Kikyo-ya whose old signboard was
once photographed by
4 and 5 we were at the top of the Kayano-Kogen wherefrom we could look down the
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11th CMO Meeting (2003,
The 11th Meeting of the CMO Planetary Observers was held on 3, 4 and 5 May 2003 at the Lecture Hall of the Fukui City Museum of Natural History.
Especially on the afternoon of 4 May, three Lectures were delivered by Takashi NAKAJIMA, Masami MURAKAMI and Kunihiko OKANO to a large public audience: NAKAJIMA talked about a fuss or wave of mass-hysteria in 1938 caused by Orson WELLES's radio programme of H G WELLS's The War of the Worlds and suggested modern implications. MURAKAMI detailed to the public audience about the present apparition of Mars as characterised as the biggest event ever since the Cro-Magnon astronomers’ time. OKANO, professional nuclear fusion scientist, talked about a recent development of plasma fusion technology including the ITER mission and also about the fusion propulsion that may propel mankind to the planet Mars in the near future.
On the evening of 4 May, a discussion time of the CMO members was led by OKANO concerning the ccd stratagem. OKANO primarily asserted that it should be necessary to choose filters freely in the ccd work. To sort out good images quickly, precisely and automatically, he recommended to use SBIG's PlanetMaster. He mentioned a new arrival of KAF-0402ME having a high quantum efficiency for shorter waves, and alluded to ST-7XME. The work by the Philips ToUcam Pro was discussed but it was never convincing to OKANO since the characteristics of Sony's ICX098BQ are not appropriate for the red planet with white clouds since their R, G, B channels are too mixed to be used for study.
We also had observation times of the coming planet Mars in the early morning on 3 and 4 May.
5 May, we had a Preliminary Conference on the Percival Lowell
SATO, Director of the
OAA Historical Section, talked about
are thankful also to the members of the
12th CMO Meeting (2004, Anamidzu, Noto peninsula)
On the occasion of the Percival Lowell Conference at Anamidzu, we had a small meeting of the 12th CMO Meeting of
Planetary Observers on the afternoon of the 4th day of May and on
Main talks at the CMO Meeting were given as follows: On 4 May, Masatsugu MINAMI first gave an overview on the 2003 Mars great apparition and talked about how the CMO every 40 minute observational method had been effective, although he felt it regrettable to say that the method was not well applied in the Japanese islands because of the cold summer in 2003. Yuichi IGA gave a talk about the recent trend of phenomena occurring on the planet Jupiter, and in particular showed a moving composed image of the GRS which SHEEHAN applauded. Makoto ADACHI then touched on the December 2003 Dust Cloud by showing a chart in PPt made of everyday patterns.
On the morning of 5 May, MINAMI gave finally a
third talk about